Saturday, October 27, 2007

C# for All Interviews.

Interview questions for C# developers

Is it possible to inline assembly or IL in C# code? - No.

Is it possible to have different access modifiers on the get/set methods of a property? - No. The access modifier on a property applies to both its get and set accessors. What you need to do if you want them to be different is make the property read-only (by only providing a get accessor) and create a private/internal set method that is separate from the property.

Is it possible to have a static indexer in C#? - No. Static indexers are not allowed in C#.

If I return out of a try/finally in C#, does the code in the finally-clause run? - Yes.
The code in the finally always runs. If you return out of the try block, or even if you do a “goto” out of the try, the finally block always runs:
using System;

class main
{
public static void Main()
{
try
{
Console.WriteLine(\"In Try block\");
return;
}
finally
{
Console.WriteLine(\"In Finally block\");
}
}
}
Both “In Try block” and “In Finally block” will be displayed. Whether the return is in the try block or after the try-finally block, performance is not affected either way. The compiler treats it as if the return were outside the try block anyway. If it’s a return without an expression (as it is above), the IL emitted is identical whether the return is inside or outside of the try. If the return has an expression, there’s an extra store/load of the value of the expression (since it has to be computed within the try block).

I was trying to use an “out int” parameter in one of my functions. How should I declare the variable that I am passing to it? - You should declare the variable as an int, but when you pass it in you must specify it as ‘out’, like the following: int i; foo(out i); where foo is declared as follows: [return-type] foo(out int o) { }

How does one compare strings in C#?
In the past, you had to call .ToString() on the strings when using the == or != operators to compare the strings’ values. That will still work, but the C# compiler now automatically compares the values instead of the references when the == or != operators are used on string types. If you actually do want to compare references, it can be done as follows: if ((object) str1 == (object) str2) { … } Here’s an example showing how string compares work:
using System;
public class StringTest
{
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
Object nullObj = null; Object realObj = new StringTest();
int i = 10;
Console.WriteLine(\"Null Object is [\" + nullObj + \"]\n\"
+ \"Real Object is [\" + realObj + \"]\n\"
+ \"i is [\" + i + \"]\n\");
// Show string equality operators
string str1 = \"foo\";
string str2 = \"bar\";
string str3 = \"bar\";
Console.WriteLine(\"{0} == {1} ? {2}\", str1, str2, str1 == str2 );
Console.WriteLine(\"{0} == {1} ? {2}\", str2, str3, str2 == str3 );
}
}
Output:
Null Object is []
Real Object is [StringTest]
i is [10]
foo == bar ? False
bar == bar ? True

How do you specify a custom attribute for the entire assembly (rather than for a class)?
Global attributes must appear after any top-level using clauses and before the first type or namespace declarations. An example of this is as follows:
using System;
[assembly : MyAttributeClass] class X {}
Note that in an IDE-created project, by convention, these attributes are placed in AssemblyInfo.cs.
How do you mark a method obsolete? -
[Obsolete] public int Foo() {...}
or
[Obsolete(\"This is a message describing why this method is obsolete\")] public int Foo() {...}
Note: The O in Obsolete is always capitalized.
How do you implement thread synchronization (Object.Wait, Notify,and CriticalSection) in C#? - You want the lock statement, which is the same as Monitor Enter/Exit:
lock(obj) { // code }
translates to
try {
CriticalSection.Enter(obj);
// code
}
finally
{
CriticalSection.Exit(obj);
}

How do you directly call a native function exported from a DLL?
Here’s a quick example of the DllImport attribute in action:
using System.Runtime.InteropServices; \
class C
{
[DllImport(\"user32.dll\")]
public static extern int MessageBoxA(int h, string m, string c, int type);
public static int Main()
{
return MessageBoxA(0, \"Hello World!\", \"Caption\", 0);
}
}
This example shows the minimum requirements for declaring a C# method that is implemented in a native DLL. The method C.MessageBoxA() is declared with the static and external modifiers, and has the DllImport attribute, which tells the compiler that the implementation comes from the user32.dll, using the default name of MessageBoxA. For more information, look at the Platform Invoke tutorial in the documentation.

How do I simulate optional parameters to COM calls?
You must use the Missing class and pass Missing.Value (in System.Reflection) for any values that have optional parameters.

Are private class-level variables inherited?
Yes, but they are not accessible, so looking at it you can honestly say that they are not inherited. But they are.

Why does DllImport not work for me?
All methods marked with the DllImport attribute must be marked as public static extern.

Why does my Windows application pop up a console window every time I run it?
Make sure that the target type set in the project properties setting is set to Windows Application, and not Console Application. If you’re using the command line, compile with /target:winexe, not /target:exe.

Why do I get an error (CS1006) when trying to declare a method without specifying a return type?
If you leave off the return type on a method declaration, the compiler thinks you are trying to declare a constructor. So if you are trying to declare a method that returns nothing, use void. The following is an example: // This results in a CS1006 error public static staticMethod (mainStatic obj) // This will work as wanted public static void staticMethod (mainStatic obj)

Why do I get a syntax error when trying to declare a variable called checked?
The word checked is a keyword in C#.
Why do I get a security exception when I try to run my C# app?
Some security exceptions are thrown if you are working on a network share. There are some parts of the frameworks that will not run if being run off a share (roaming profile, mapped drives, etc.). To see if this is what’s happening, just move the executable over to your local drive and see if it runs without the exceptions. One of the common exceptions thrown under these conditions is System.Security.SecurityException. To get around this, you can change your security policy for the intranet zone, code group 1.2, (the zone that running off shared folders falls into) by using the caspol.exe tool.

Why do I get a CS5001: does not have an entry point defined error when compiling?
The most common problem is that you used a lowercase ‘m’ when defining the Main method. The correct way to implement the entry point is as follows: class test { static void Main(string[] args) {} }

What optimizations does the C# compiler perform when you use the /optimize+ compiler option?
The following is a response from a developer on the C# compiler team: We get rid of unused locals (i.e., locals that are never read, even if assigned). We get rid of unreachable code. We get rid of try-catch with an empty try. We get rid of try-finally with an empty try. We get rid of try-finally with an empty finally. We optimize branches over branches: gotoif A, lab1 goto lab2: lab1: turns into: gotoif !A, lab2 lab1: We optimize branches to ret, branches to next instruction, and branches to branches.

What is the syntax for calling an overloaded constructor within a constructor (this() and constructorname() does not compile)?
The syntax for calling another constructor is as follows: class B { B(int i) { } } class C : B { C() : base(5) // call base constructor B(5) { } C(int i) : this() // call C() { } public static void Main() {} }
What is the equivalent to regsvr32 and regsvr32 /u a file in .NET development? - Try using RegAsm.exe. Search MSDN on Assembly Registration Tool.

What is the difference between a struct and a class in C#?
From language spec: The list of similarities between classes and structs is as follows. Longstructs can implement interfaces and can have the same kinds of members as classes. Structs differ from classes in several important ways; however, structs are value types rather than reference types, and inheritance is not supported for structs. Struct values are stored on the stack or in-line. Careful programmers can sometimes enhance performance through judicious use of structs. For example, the use of a struct rather than a class for a Point can make a large difference in the number of memory allocations performed at runtime. The program below creates and initializes an array of 100 points. With Point implemented as a class, 101 separate objects are instantiated-one for the array and one each for the 100 elements.

My switch statement works differently than in C++! Why?
C# does not support an explicit fall through for case blocks. The following code is not legal and will not compile in C#:
switch(x)
{
case 0: // do something
case 1: // do something as continuation of case 0
default: // do something in common with
//0, 1 and everything else
break;
}
To achieve the same effect in C#, the code must be modified as shown below (notice how the control flows are explicit):
class Test
{
public static void Main() {
int x = 3;
switch(x)
{
case 0: // do something
goto case 1;
case 1: // do something in common with 0
goto default;
default: // do something in common with 0, 1, and anything else
break;
}
}
}

C# does support fall through. The following code is valid:

switch (x)
{
case 0: // do something
case 1: // do something as continuation of case 0
default: // do something in common with
//0, 1 and everything else
{
break;
}
}

What C# does not allow is falling out of one code block into another like this:
// will not compile because each code block needs
// a break statement.
switch (x)
{
case 0:
{
Console.WriteLine(”0″);
}
case 1:
{
Console.WriteLine(”0″);
}
}

switch (x)
{
case 0: // do something
case 1: // do something as continuation of case 0
default: // do something in common with
//0, 1 and everything else
{
break;
}
}

C# does not support explicit fall through for the Case ….you can use goto:Case/goto:default to make a fall through
ex
swich(x)
case 1:
//do spmething ;
break;
case 2: //do somethin
goto case1;
case 3 : //do spmething ;
break;
case default : //do spmething ;
break;

Fall through is achieved like this. Do not put any code except in the case 2 to achieve the fall through.
switch(i)
{
case 0:
case 1:
case 2:
//Some code here
break;
case 5:
//some code here
break;
default:
}

Is there regular expression (regex) support available to C# developers? - Yes. The .NET class libraries provide support for regular expressions.
Look at the System.Text.RegularExpressions namespace.
Is there any sample C# code for simple threading? - Yes:
using System;
using System.Threading;
class ThreadTest
{
public void runme()
{
Console.WriteLine(\"Runme Called\");
}
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
ThreadTest b = new ThreadTest();
Thread t = new Thread(new ThreadStart(b.runme));
t.Start();
}
}
Is there an equivalent of exit() for quitting a C# .NET application? –
Yes, you can use System.Environment.Exit(int exitCode) to exit the application or Application.Exit() if it’s a Windows Forms app.

Is there a way to force garbage collection?
Yes. Set all references to null and then call System.GC.Collect(). If you need to have some objects destructed, and System.GC.Collect() doesn’t seem to be doing it for you, you can force finalizers to be run by setting all the references to the object to null and then calling System.GC.RunFinalizers().

Is there a way of specifying which block or loop to break out of when working with nested loops?
he easiest way is to use goto:
using System;
class BreakExample
{
public static void Main(String[] args) {
for(int i=0; i<3; j="0" j ="="" s =" #”n" s =" “’n" s =" @”n" s =" “n" a ="="" a =" new" instance ="="" instance =" new" instance =" new" unrestricted="true)]" cppname =" new" cppname =" new" privatepath="”c:\mylibs;">
should do the trick. Or you can add additional search paths in the Properties box of the deployed application.

How can you debug failed assembly binds?
Use the Assembly Binding Log Viewer (fuslogvw.exe) to find out the paths searched.
Where are shared assemblies stored? Global assembly cache.

How can you create a strong name for a .NET assembly?
With the help of Strong Name tool (sn.exe).

Where’s global assembly cache located on the system?
Usually C:\winnt\assembly or C:\windows\assembly.

Can you have two files with the same file name in GAC?
Yes, remember that GAC is a very special folder, and while normally you would not be able to place two files with the same name into a Windows folder, GAC differentiates by version number as well, so it’s possible for MyApp.dll and MyApp.dll to co-exist in GAC if the first one is version 1.0.0.0 and the second one is 1.1.0.0.
So let’s say I have an application that uses MyApp.dll assembly, version 1.0.0.0. There is a security bug in that assembly, and I publish the patch, issuing it under name MyApp.dll 1.1.0.0. How do I tell the client applications that are already installed to start using this new MyApp.dll? Use publisher policy. To configure a publisher policy, use the publisher policy configuration file, which uses a format similar app .config file. But unlike the app .config file, a publisher policy file needs to be compiled into an assembly and placed in the GAC.

What is delay signing?
Delay signing allows you to place a shared assembly in the GAC by signing the assembly with just the public key. This allows the assembly to be signed with the private key at a later stage, when the development process is complete and the component or assembly is ready to be deployed. This process enables developers to work with shared assemblies as if they were strongly named, and it secures the private key of the signature from being accessed at different stages of development.

ASP.NET interview questions

Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution?
ASP.NET supports two modes of page development: Page logic code that is written inside

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